Science club – Digestive system

Week Two – Digestive System

Arrival Craft: Paper digestive system from Scholastic model book

Introduction: What does our digestive system do?

It reduces food to simpler parts, then distributes it around our body as required.

Does anyone know how we get food from our intestines into the parts of our bodies that need it? We use something very clever called osmosis.

Osmosis is basically about fairness. Substances move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Just like, if I gave this table a big bowl of sweets and no sweets to the other tables, this table would share the sweets out until everyone had the same amount.

Our bodies don’t need to work for osmosis to happen, it doesn’t take any energy. Things just move from where there’s lots of them to where there isn’t much.

If I put a drop of very sugary water into this bowl of plain water, what will happen? The sugar will spread out until all the water is equally sugary.

That happens in our bodies, and it’s a very important part of how we get food from our mouths to the rest of our cells.

We’re going to do an experiment to show how osmosis happens in our digestive system.

I’ve got three liquids here. I have plain water, sugary water and starchy water.

They all look pretty much the same.

Does anyone know how we can tell if water has glucose in it?

Does anyone know how we can tell if water has starch in it? (We covered this a while ago in our food week, so some of the children remembered.)

I also have some sausage skins. They’re made of something very like your small intestines.

You can see that water cannot get through the sausage skins. It doesn’t drip out.

But, there are tiny holes in the skins and some molecules – which are smaller than water molecules – can get out.

You’re going to do an experiment to discover whether glucose or starch can get through the sausage skins.

Individual Task – Set up sausage skins filled with glucose and starch mixture. Immerse them in water. Test to see if starch and/or glucose can get through the sausage skin. sausageskinexpt


Second Half: Show anatomy model.

Our digestive system is divided into several parts. It moves from our mouths all the way down to our bottoms. Get a child to wear the digestive system apron (I found this online, it’s brilliant fun) and see if the other children can name all the organs of the digestive system.

Individual task: Give out plastic aprons and sticky-backed organ pictures so that the children can make their own digestive system aprons. digestivestickers

Science club – Skeletal system

I got a book for my birthday this is it, which provided photocopiable resources to make a paper anatomy model, so I thought it would be fun to spend some time working through that with our science group.

The first week was all about bones.

Week One – Skeletal System

Arrival Craft: Paper skeleton from Scholastic model book


Introduction: We’re going to be looking at human bodies for the next six weeks. We’re starting this week with the skeletal system. Does anyone know why our skeletons are important?

They give structure to our bodies.

Hopefully, you’ve all made a good start on making your paper skeletons. But, in real life our skeletons aren’t made of paper.

A joint is the point where two or more bones meet. There are three main types of joints; Fibrous (immoveable), Cartilaginous (partially moveable) and the Synovial (freely moveable) joint.

If our bones were all joined with sellotape, we would have flappy joints. Actually, our bodies have several types of joints. We’re going to make some models of them now.


Individual task:Make ball and socket, pivot and hinge joints, using materials from the Scholastic book.

Experiment to find where these different types of joints are on our bodies.



Break for drink and snack


Re-gather: Lay out the big skeleton picture.

Ask the children if they know the names of any of the bones. Lay the bone labels on the skeleton together.

Our bones can’t move by themselves. Does anyone know what we use to move our bones?

Skeletal Muscles move bones (smooth muscles are found in involuntary movements such as your stomach and your bladder; cardiac muscles are in your heart).

These fibrous tissue masses contract to pull bones in one direction, so they are found in pairs – so that you can move back again!


Individual task: Experiment to measure arm width when muscle is relaxed and contracted. MuscleExperiment


Reflections on Teaching my boys to Read

All three of my boys are independent readers now, so I thought it might be interesting to reflect on my experience of teaching them to read (before I forget it all completely!).
When – and how – we began.

Our Eldest son came to us at five, Middly at three, and Youngest (our birth child) at zero. So, we began teaching our children to read at very different ages.

We began with the older two by reading to them. We did this a lot. We read at bedtime and at several points during the day, every day.

Middly had a couple of favourite books; he loved We’re going on a Bear Hunt, and The Monkey with a Bright Blue Bottom, so much that I can still receit them by heart. However, I have never been keen on re-reading the same books endlessly. So, as well as buying lots of books, we visited the library each week and took piles of books home.

When Eldest began to read with us, it was clear that he was unfamiliar with not common fairy tales and nursery rhymes. Many modern children’s books take a sideways angle on these common themes, which can be bemusing to a child who has never heard the originals. We made an effort to read fairy tales to all our boys, but Eldest still forgets the stories, and occasionally misses references to them. When his class spent a term looking at fairy tales, he really struggled to keep up.

When Eldest began to read for himself, the lack of nursery rhymes became more frustrating. He didn’t know what would come after “Twinkle twinkle little”, so he couldn’t enjoy easily reading books of nursery rhymes. Many workbooks for young children presume a knowledge of nursery rhymes, which made extra work for Eldest.

More importantly, his lack of exposure to rhymes meant that he had to learn which words rhymed. Being able to recognise rhyming words really helps with learning to read. Eldest couldn’t read ‘cat’ and then see that ‘mat’ would end the same. Again, he had more work to do.

Middly was younger and when he began to read, we noticed that he understood rhyming easily. If we sounded out “sun”, for example, he could easily work out that “fun” and “run” would end the same.

I also noticed that Middly would sometimes presume the ending of sentences (and do so correctly frequently enough to make the guesses worthwhile). At the close of speech marks, he expected to see ‘said’. This gave Middly much quicker successes, which made him very confident.

Youngest, however, found reading the easiest. We read to him from the very beginning. He sat in on his older brothers’ bedtime stories. As a result, Youngest was familiar with books long before he began to read. He could predict sentences, rhyme schemes, and even plots. If he saw a goat heading for a bridge, he would guess that it would meet a troll. He was often able to guess correctly, which made his reading fluent far earlier than the others.

I think hearing nursery rhymes, songs, and simple stories from day one definitely helped give Youngest the best foundation for learning to read.

Jolly Phonics

When we first started to teach our Eldest to read we expected to send him to primary school in year one. So, I checked the school’s website, intending to use the same scheme as them. I hoped that would make it as easy as possible for Eldest to slot into class.

The school used Jolly Phonics, so I had a look. I was pretty impressed. I bought their photocopiable resources, CD, and activity books. I followed their scheme of introducing a phoneme every day. It was pretty spectacular. Eldest picked up reading within a couple of months.

Middly followed along with Eldest – though I gave him only the photocopied sheets, with minimal writing, and kept the activity books exclusively for Eldest – and was pretty much on a level with him. We sang along to the songs in the car.

When Youngest turned three and a half, we picked up the Jolly Phonics set again. It was quite fun to listen to the songs  again. This time around, I was also home educating two bigger boys, and I spent far less time with Youngest. It took us about twice as long to get through the course! But, it was equally effective. I bought a new set of activity books, and they were much brighter than the ones Eldest used. I was really impressed and Youngest enjoyed them.

Other stuff we’ve enjoyed.

Bath letters are awesome! We bought a set for the big boys, and another set for Youngest. We used them to practice blending, reading and spelling. The boys love putting messages up for us during bath  time. For all three boys, cheeky words on the side of the bath have been some of their very first attempts at independent spelling. 

Bath letters are wonderful and definitely my favourite resource for teaching reading. They’re also very cheap and available from loads of places.

Lacing letters have proven less popular. The children can find it confusing to work out how to thread the letters, and accidentally spell words backwards. It’s also fiddly to change a letter in the middle of a word. 

We did buy Cookie Letters Toy for Youngest. He played with it a few times, but none of the games really engaged his interest much.

Making letters out of playdough and biscuit dough, drawing letters in sand and rice, were also briefly entertaining, but not big hits. There are lots of other things that the boys would rather make out of playdough.

When Middly was learning to read, I had a letter tracing app on my iPhone, which he played a few times. When Youngest was learning to read there were thousands of electronic games available! Many of Youngest’s friends are keen on Reading Eggs, but it didn’t appeal to Youngest at all.

Reading Schemes

We were very lucky with the big boys, as we lived near a fantastic library which had numerous entire sets of reading schemes. That made it easy to find lots of books at the right level.

I do think that having books at the right level available helps. If books are too easy, the boys are quickly bored. If the books are too hard, they lose confidence and baulk at reading at all.

We moved, however, and our new library was no use for Youngest. It had a very limited selection of books and didn’t keep them in order. So, I ended up having to buy reading schemes for him. I bought a few sets so that he had plenty to read at each reading level.

Our favorites have been Oxford Reading Tree. We loved the Songbirds set, and got a set of activity books and a card game to match. Youngest quite liked Biff, Chip and Kipper, and the Fairy tales set, and the poetry books were surprisingly good fun.

But, our absolute favourite has been Project X. Youngest loves these exciting stories and is eager to keep reading! There are some cliffhangers at the end of books, though. And there’s even a big cliff hanger at the end of the first set of books. I was very glad that I had the next set ready to go. Youngest was very worried about Seven!

We tried Big Cat Readers, which Youngest didn’t enjoy much. I also bought a Marvel reading set and a Paw Patrol reading set. Youngest loves superheroes and Paw Patrol. But, the books themselves weren’t very exciting. They spent a lot of time describing Youngest’s favourite characters, not giving him new information. It’s hard to convince anyone that it’s worth making the effort to read something you already know.
Tricky bits.

All of the boys went through a patch of not really wanting to read. I went with a little and often approach. Sometimes breaking a page down into little bits. But, I stuck to a basic rule of reading every day, regardless of how busy we were, or anything else. Sometimes we alternated pages (I read one, the child read one, and so on); sometimes we even alternated words. We always read. I find it easier to have clear rules; once I have made one exception, it’s much harder to refuse to make another.

Eldest also struggled with blending for a while. I read Handbook of Reading Interventions. They described a game called Talking like a Robot. Instead of trying to teach Eldest to push sounds together to make words, we played a game where he split words up into individual sounds. For example, I showed him the word boat and explained that a robot would say “b-oa-t”. I said lots of words in robot language, and Eldest had a go at saying words in robot language too. Once he was able to break words down into sounds, he was also able to push sounds together to make words.

Final thoughts

Teaching the boys to read has a lot of fun. I have lived watching them go from recognising a few letters​ to fluently reading books. It’s given them, and me, an enormous sense of achievement. I am a little sorry to be leaving this stage behind. But, I am sure that there are plenty more wonderful things for us to learn together!

My Family Recipe for Macaroni Cheese

From time to time, I foolishly click on a link or (even more foolishly) buy a book promising ‘quick and easy family meals’, only to find lots of fresh herbs, dozens of pans, and a requirement to focus on cooking and nothing but cooking for anything up to an hour. That is not what I call a family recipe. 
However, I do actually cook meals for my family, usually twice a day, and it rarely turns into a complete fiasco. So, I thought that I would share a real family recipe with you. I’ve chosen macaroni cheese because it is almost always a popular meal in our house.

Maybe this will encourage other parents struggling to prepare meals with children around. Please consider sharing one of your recipes with me in return 😉

  1. Turn on the TV and leave the children in front of it. Be sure to seat them as far from one another as your lounge allows.
  2. Put the kettle on – make sure it’s completely full.
  3. Find some pasta and put it in a saucepan, on the back hob. Do not turn it on yet! You will burn the pasta.
  4. Put butter in the big pan, on the front hob. Turn that hob on.
  5. Check you turned on the correct hob.
  6. Put a tea bag in a mug.
  7. Creep into the lounge as quietly as you can to check on the children. Put them back on seats far away from one another and take the remote away.
  8. When the kettle boils, make your tea first, then pour all the leftover water on top of the pasta. Now you can turn the hob on.
  9. Put frozen hot dogs on top of the pasta. Put the lid half on. Do not put the lid on properly, or the pasta will boil over.
  10. Shake some plain flour (bread flour is fine, if  you ran out of plain, but be careful with self-raising because it tastes funny) into the melted butter and mix it to make a paste.
  11. Add milk slowly to the sauce and stir. (If there is a noise in the lounge, make sure you take the lid off the pasta and the sauce off the hob before going to check, otherwise you will come back to burnt, lumpy sauce and a pasta-water swamp. Do not fool yourself that it will only take a second to sort out that worrying noise.)
  12. Season the sauce with pepper, salt and something else (paprika’s fine, nutmeg’s fine, rosemary’s fine, but don’t mix them all together). 
  13. Add peas and sweet corn to the sauce.
  14. Now is a very good moment to check back in on the children. You might even be able to drink some tea. 😊
  15. Grate some cheese and put a handful in the sauce. If you have to return to the lounge, do not leave the cheese out – someone will creep in and eat it – hide it under a tea towel.
  16. Make sure there’s nothing in the  oven. If there’s something weird in the oven, put it to one side to deal with later. If you get into that now, tea will be late and everyone will be grouchy, especially you.
  17. Turn oven on.
  18. Take the hot dogs out of the pasta and cut them up (it is worth the extra washing-up created by using a knife and a fork, since otherwise you will drop the hotdogs on the floor and the children will complain that there are fewer hotdogs than usual).
  19. Drain the pasta.
  20. Add the pasta to the sauce and stir.
  21. Add the hotdogs to the pasta and stir.
  22. Pour the pasta into the big blue dish, sprinkle the rest of the cheese on top (make sure it’s roughly even, it is worth taking the time now to avoid having that ridiculous argument about who has most cheese on their pasta again).
  23. Put the blue dish in the oven and check that you really did turn the oven on earlier. 
  24. Go back into the lounge – try to remember to take your cup of tea with you. Now is a good time to follow up on that weird thing you found in the oven.
  25. Return to the kitchen and get your cup of tea.
  26. Every ten minutes or so, check the pasta to see if the cheese is crispy yet.
  27. When the cheese is crisp (not before, unless you want the children to ask how long tea will be repeatedly), ask a child to lay the table – try to remember which child you ask.
  28. Take the pasta out of the oven.
  29. Dish out Youngest’s first so it has time to cool down a bit.
  30. Check the table and ask the child to go back and lay it properly. If ask the wrong child to fix the table, that is because you are encouraging a sense of teamwork.
  31. Dish out the rest of the plates and take the plates through.
  32. The meal is cooked. Huzzah!

    Reading – Together and Apart

    I am a desperate reader. 

    Of course, I read for pleasure, and I read for information. I read to make myself think and to find out about other people’s take on the world. But, most of all, I read because I have to.

    I cannot function well unless I have a book or two on the go.

    There’s always a book on the arm of my sofa, which I can pick up at any five minute pause in the day. There are also books by the bath, and books by my bed. I have an e-reader too, which allows me to take loads of books with me on holiday.

    I have loved to read for most of my life and I have loved a great many books. When I look back and think about my life,  I find myself thinking of the books that I was reading.

    When things are tricky, I retreat into the world of books. Pickwick Papers got me through high school dramas. I read Georgette Heyer novels when my husband and I struggled with infertility.

    When we adopted, our boys were not big fans of reading. They said it was ‘boring’ and ‘lazy’. But I continued to read, and I brought the boys into books with me. I read The Tiger who Came to Tea to the boys cuddled on the sofa. I read Dr Suess to them in the library. I read Dinosaur Rumpus to them when they were in the bath. I read We’re going on a Bear Hunt to them when I put them to bed.

    When they screamed and wouldn’t let me near them, I sat nearby and read T.S. Eliot poems until they calmed down (sometimes aloud, usually not). I felt useless.

    My children were struggling with such overwhelming anger and sadness, it was all I could do to keep myself afloat. I had so little to offer them. I hid in poetry, wishing that I knew how to wrap them up and take the pain away.

    When the boys grew older and I couldn’t sit nearby to watch them scream, I sat downstairs, reading Robin Hobb novels and trying to forget how much of a failure I felt.

    I knew that I ought to be helping them with these overwhelming feelings. I didn’t know how to do so.

    I feel a great responsibility to follow through on the promise of adoption. These children I’m raising are infinitely precious to more than just me and my family. I have another mother’s children in my house, and I owe her the very best parent I can be.

    Yet, so many times, I have retreated from the drama around me, picked up a book and read myself out of the room.

    So many times, not knowing what to say, I have picked up a book and read. When the days have been terrifying, I have read Where the Wild Things Are. When I couldn’t tell them how amazing they are, I read Oh, the Places You’ll Go. Wanting them to understand that my love will always be here, I read Zagazoo and The Red Thread. “It’s like this,” I tell them, “this is how I feel about you.”

    In time the boys learned to read for themselves and they began to read their own books. They began to read in bed, as an excuse to stay up later. They began to read during the day, because it got them through their adored Beast  Quest books faster than listening to me reading aloud.
    We buy them books at every opportunity, and take them to the library every week. I have shared my favorites with them (age appropriately​, of course). One of my cherished parenting moments was reading The Prisoner of Zenda to my sons. They have even begun to recommend books to me (they were right,  Cogheart is well worth reading). 

    The boys have fallen in love with reading. They read to while away car journeys (which makes me jealous – I have never been able to read in the car). Curled up on the sofa, they read for hours on end, a glorious mixture of fiction and nonfiction, graphic novels and encyclopedias.

    More than that, though, they read for comfort. When they’re upset, they storm off to their rooms, throw a few toys, toss out a few insults, then they read.

    They read Harry Potter and Lord of the Rings over and over again. They read Percy Jackson and Roman Mysteries. They borrow my husband’s Terry Pratchetts and my Jasper Ffordes. When the world gets too much, and they don’t know how to face it, my children pick up books and read themselves away.

    I feel slightly less of a failure now. I had thought that I was supposed to be comforting my boys, that I needed to fill those empty spaces inside them. And, I still think it would have been good had I been the kind of person who could do that.

    But, I now see that I have done something, after all. I have shown them my coping strategy. It’s not much, but it’s all I’ve got.

    It may be very little, and I worry every day that it can’t possibly be enough, yet I have done as I intended and given my children my all.

    100 days of home ed part 1

    I am taking part in a challenge on twitter to post photos of home ed in our house for 100 days. We’re halfway through! So, here are the first 50 pictures.

    We have quite a structured approach to home education. All my children are working through a set of workbooks and textbooks, but I didn’t think a lot of pictures of workbooks would be very exciting! So, I posted photos of the more interesting stuff we’ve been up to.

    We also do a lot of active stuff. We swim a couple of times a week. Eldest has tennis a few times a week. We go for a weekly walk with friends and play in parks three or four times a week. None of that features in the photos, not because it doesn’t look great, but because I never put pictures of the boys online.

    The photos give a limited window into our home ed lives. But, it’s been a fun project nonetheless.

    To stop me repeating pictures, I thought it would be worth keeping a master list. So, here it is – the most photogenic moments of #100daysofhomeed!

    Day 1: Modelling earthquakes.

    Day 2: Making cupcakes.

    Day 3 – Learning about blood – a few of the things we played with at Science Club.

    Day 4 – Using sweets in bowls to help Eldest with algebra

    Day 5 – Map jigsaw. The names of various cities come out, but their positions aren’t shown on the box, so we needed to use the atlas to complete the puzzle.

    Day 6 – Spontaneous writing from Youngest. He’s the closest to bring unschooled, as he comes up with lots of his own projects and doesn’t seem to need so much encouragement to create things.

    Day 7 – K’nex monsters, made by Youngest and Middly.

    Day 8 – Fold mountains and goats. This was a demo that Eldest did at his Geography Course. All the children enjoyed making the goats.

    Day 9 – Making a ‘CD racer’ – my mum picked up a kit with a variety of craft activities in it, and Middly tried this one.

     Day 10 – Making model neurons and drawing nervous systems onto little polystyrene people. This is a selection of the stuff we did at Science Club.

    Day 11 – Youngest started a weather diary

    Day 12 – We made Steady Hand games. We were trialling these for Science Club, I’d bought copper wire to use but it turned out to have a wax coating and required sanding to make the sides conductive, we tried solder which kept snapping, then I thought of using unfurled paper clips. The toys were small but effective and easy to make. I have ordered more iron wire for use at the club, though. Preparing for the Science Club sessions can be really interesting for the boys, as it’s often more challenging to put an activity together than it is to do it. But, I don’t actually get them to help very often, I don’t want to destroy their enthusiasm for the sessions themselves.

    Day 13 – A game of Cranium. We had a busy day, out with friends for an adopters meet up, then to soft play, none of which produced photos I could share! But, we played a board game at home.

    Day 14 – Making pipe cleaner animals. Middly’s done a few of these. I think he was inspired to pick them back up after the neuron craft we did last week. The children often regain interest in our resources after they’ve seen the enthusiastic responses from their friends at Science Club. That’s yet another benefit to us!

    Day 15 – Eldest had a go at making a push switch in preparation for Science Club. I was pretty pleased with this one because he figured it out by himself.

    Day 16 – Middly made a cardboard castle for his rats to play in. I found it very hard to get a picture, because those rats are fast! He has three, this was my best shot:

    Day 17 – At Science Club, everyone coloured in this grid colouring sheet made by Eldest. It went down well.

    Day 18 – Youngest was doing bees in his Science workbook, and I happened to have a bee cushion kit in my craft box, so he had a mini bee project.

    Day 19 – Youngest wanted to make a board game. He drew a board, typed the instructions on the computer, and designed the pieces using Tinkercad. Then my husband helped him print his characters using our 3d printer. I liked this project so much, I put up two photos!

    Day 20 – It was a real struggle to find a photo today. My in-laws visited and played lotsof games with the boys. We had lunch out and went swimming. It was a fun day, but I didn’t take any pictures without people in! So, I took this when we got home. Youngest does love his floats.

    Day 21 – Youngest played with a new playdough toy at church. 

    Day 22 – Middly and I messed around with LEDs and resistors, trying to decide on what to do at this week’s Science Club.

    Day 23 – Another tricky day to photograph. We swam with friends and went out with family to a soft play place. The big boys found some of their work a bit tricky, so it took up more time than usual. But, we did find a leftover sticker sheet from a previous Science Club and make an apron together. So, I used that picture.

    Day 24 – Drama group. We did a read through of a script I found online here. Then we talked about emphasis and how emphasising a single word can change the meaning of a sentence. The children enjoyed writing sentences on the white board and taking it in turns to read the sentences, emphasising different words and talking about how the meaning changed. Finally, we read through the play script again, choosing to emphasise different words. 

    Day 25 – We made a giant model breadboard, using velcro to hold the giant components in place. I am hoping this will help children understand the circuits we’re building at Science Club.

     Day 26 – We had a tour of a mill with a group of Home Ed friends.

    Day 27 – My husband took the boys out for the day. They had a long walk, visited a museum and a library. He didn’t take pictures of any if this, though. So I took a picture of the library books that the boys took out this week.

    Day 28 – Mug cakes.

    Day 29 – the boys made a cheesecake.

    Day 30 – Middly began a project on tinkercad: making plastic parts to use when playing with playdough.

    Day 31 – Middly finished his tinkercad project, printed the parts and made some playdough to use with them.

    Day 32 – Youngest made masks.

    Day 33 – Eldest used various jugs and cups to practice estimating and measuring.

    Day 34 – Middly drew a face, making curves out of straight lines. Using his book The Stick Man with a Big Bum – Activity Book.

    Day 35 – We made another cake!

    Day 36 – Middly used fuse beads to make a coaster.

    Day 37 – Youngest was doing a dinosaur sticker book, so Eldest fetched his big book of dinosaurs and showed it to Youngest. At moments like these, home education is awesome!

    Day 38 – We investigated LDRs at Science Club.

    Day 39 – After dropping Eldest at tennis, Youngest decided to make his own tennis racket.

    Day 40 – We went on a worm hunt in our garden. We used a pack from Earthworm Watch, which was really well put together. I love taking part in these citizen science projects. I’m also very keen on Zooniverse and Opal to find big science projects that children can take part in.

    Day 41 – The boys played chess. We play a lot of board games together.

    Day 42 – We made a jigsaw together.

    Day 43 – Youngest used lacing letters to make some words.

    Day 44 – Middly helped me make some more model components for our giant model breadboard.

    Day 45 – We made slide switches at Science Club.

    Day 46 – Eldest played Rushhour Junior. Strictly speaking this is Youngest’s toy. But, I think all children can benefit from playing with​ toys for a variety of ages.

    Day 47 – Middly built a walking turtle from a kit.

    Day 48 – We went for a family walk by a river.

    Day 49 – We made hot cross buns.

    Day 50 – The boys made bean bag frogs. 

    Science Club – Pneumatics 2


    Arrival Craft: Air colouring sheet. air

    Introduction: Gasses can be compressed more than liquids or solids, but there are still limits. If we try to squash air too much, it will rush away.

    If I blow up a balloon and let go of the end, what will happen?

    The air will rush out of the balloon. The force of the air rushing out will push the balloon away in the opposite direction. This is one of the big rules of energy: every action has an equal and opposite reaction.


    If you inflate a balloon and attach it to a CD, then the air will rush out through the hole, pushing the CD into the air, like a tiny hovercraft. These are easy to make, but there’s a YouTube video on @Bristol’s site, which is very good.

    Individual Task: Make CD hovercrafts.

    Break for drink and snack.

    Second Part: If we don’t give the air any way out, then we can use it to push things.

    This is called pneumatics.

    Individual Task: Make pneumatic hoists out of tech card.